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Shame: Hiri, Fear: Ottappa

Shame: Hiri, Fear: Ottappa

3. Hiri (Shame) And 4. Ottapa (Fear)

To feel ashamed to do evil is hiri; dread or fear to do evil is ottappa. Hiri is evident in those who value their honour and dignity. Ottappa is evident in those who respect their parents, teachers, friends and relatives.

Further clarification is as follows:

When one reasons, “I belong to a good family. So, I should not indulge in unwholesome deeds, nor earn my living as a fisherman or as a hunter.” Thus he feels ashamed to resort to indecent livelihood and maintain the honor of his family, or clan. The educated will reason thus, “We are learned persons; we should feel ashamed of unwholesome acts of doing bad deeds. We must refrain from killing, stealing, etc.” The aged will reason thus, “We are old, and ought to be mature and wise. If we commit evil we will come into shameful situations.” These three instances show the dominance of hiri, a wholesome mental factor, in those who value their honor and dignity. Those who are considerate of others will reason, “If I do evil, my parents, friends, relatives, and teachers will be blamed because of me. Therefore I will not do any evil. I will avoid misdeeds.” This is a fine example of ottappa. So a person acquires hiri and ottappa by means of sympathetic considerations for others and by holding the honor and dignity of his close acquaintances. But if you have no sympathetic consideration for your family, teachers, etc., you lack both hiri and ottappa and you will do many evil deeds in your life. Hiri and ottappa protect you from immoralities putting restraints on son from misconduct with mother as well as on brother from committing sin with sister. They are regarded, therefore as two great guardians of the world (Lokapala Dhamma) protecting you from immoralities. So they are pure and wholesome ideals, known as Sukka Dhamma. These two Dhamma keep human beings in moral discipline and moral restraint that distinguish them from animals. Without hiri and ottappa, mankind will sink into evil depths and be reduced to the state of animals. Today many people are void of moral shame and dread so that they dress, eat and behave indecently. If this moral decay continues to proliferate, the world will soon end in complete ruin. For mankind will turn into animals.  

False Hiri and Ottappa

Although moral shame and moral fear are wholesome mental factors (kusala cetasika) there are also false ones. Shame or fear to do evil deeds, abstinence from evil actions (ducarita) are due to true hiri and true ottappa. Shame and dread to keep Sabbath, to visit pagodas and monasteries (to go to church), to listen to Dhamma talks, to speak in public, to do manual (not ashamed of being unemployed and starving) labor, or boy meeting girls, etc., are false hiri and ottappa. In fact they are pretensions and vain pride. According to Abhidhamma they all are collectively taken as a form of tanha.

Four Cases Where Shame Should be Disregard

In texts mention is made of four cases where one should discard shame: i. In trade and commerce
ii. In learning under a competent teacher
iii. In partaking of food
iv. In making love
These cases are mentioned to emphasize the point that one should be hold doing something of benefit. No commitments are made on whether they are moral or immoral. Other instances of hiri and ottappa are fear of courts and judges, reluctance to visits the lavatory while traveling, fear of dogs, fear of ghosts, fear on unknown places, fear of opposite sex, fear of elders and parents, fear of speaking in the presence of elders, etc. These are not genuine fear or shame. Indeed they are mere lack of nerve or confidence, a collection of akusala (unwholesome) states propelled by domanassa.

The Middle Way

The above explanation will clarify the fact that only genuine shame and fear are to be cultivated. There should neither be shame nor fear doing deeds not unwholesome. But this does not mean one must be reckless and bold in every case. Recklessness leads to disrespect for elders, anger, hatred and conceit. While moral courage and fearlessness are to be praised, recklessness and disrespect are to be blamed. Fruitless boldness, disrespect and vain courage are undesirable; one should be bold and fearless only in doing good deeds. Excess of shame and fear are equally undesirable. There is a middle path for all to follow. One is not to be fearless in circumstances that they should have fear; and one should not be feared and become fearless of what should be feared.”

Mindfulness / sati

Mindfulness: Sati

2. Sati (Mindfulness)

Recollection, remembering or heedfulness, are definitive terms for mindfulness which is known as sati in Pali. There are various forms of sati. For example, one recalls the meritorious deeds performed in the past; one listens attentively so that one can remember the Dhamma discourses. While meditating, one concentrates deeply not to lose the object of meditation. Such is the nature of sati. Sometimes you look forward to meritorious deeds to be done tomorrow or in the future. You take care to observe morality (Sila) and do not breach any precepts. You are mindful to restrain the arising or greed, pride and ignorance. You recall the counsels of your teachers. Only such forms of mindfulness concerning wholesome matters are collectively called sati (mindfulness). Such true mindfulness is also called appamada – without remissness, watchfulness, vigilance. Therefore when a bhikkhu administers Síla precepts to lay devotees, he always reminds thus at the end of giving precepts, “Appamadena sampadetha – be ye without remissness in doing meritorious deeds.” The Tathagata taught thus, “Sati khvaham bhikkhave sabbatthikam vadami – O Bhikkhus, mindfulness is essential in every act.” Though there may be instances of being over faithful, there can never be over-mindfulness. When the Buddha was about to enter PariNibbána, his last words summed up the very essence of his teachings (Dhamma), that is, “Appamadena sampadetha – be always vigilant and watchful in every act.”

Mere Remembrance is Not Sati!

When a person remembers his relatives, when lovers yearns for one another, when friends remember to keep appointments, when one recalls some precious moments, etc. all such remembrances have the nature of attachment (tanha). When one remembers to take revenge for injuries done to one, when one keeps in mind atrocious plans; when one pays heed to possible dangers that may befall en route to a destination; such cases reveal hatred (dosa) as the base. Any form of the aforesaid mental factors being accompanied by attachment or hatred, cannot be classified as true mindfulness (sati). The above are the examples of sanna (memorizing, minding) or vitakka (purposeful thinking); they are not to be mistaken for sati. The natures of sanna and vitakka will be explained in the chapters to come.

Faith: Saddha

Faith: Saddha

1. Saddha (Faith)

If you believe what is logical you will develop saddha (faith). It has two characteristics, belief and clarity of mind.

a. Belief

Wrong belief rejects the truth of kamma and its results, the truth of existence of the past and the future lives; the Omniscience of the Buddha, a human personage, who knows all these truths, his teachings, the Dhamma and his disciples, the Sangha. Such rejections are total disbelief which is different from vicikiccha, the skeptical doubt with partial acceptance. Here faith (saddha) means belief in kamma and its result. Saddha is also called “Saddhadhimokkha” (decision based on full faith in things if real nature) it is also a wholesome mental factor (kusala cetasika).

b. Clarity of Mind

The second characteristics of saddha is clarity of mind. While giving alms or observing precepts, or meditating, one’s mind becomes filled with faith and clear. It’s just as a ruby of the Universal Monarch, when put in a muddy water, will cause the impurities and sediments to sink and make the water to become crystal clear, so also saddha will eliminate all doubts, skepticism, and other mental defilements and purity the mind. Such is the skeptical doubt with partial acceptance. Even children and some pet animal, even though they cannot understand the first characteristics of saddha, will perform good deeds in emulation of their elders and teachers. So they will pay homage to the Ti-Ratana (Three Jewels), offer alms, and do service to others. While doing such good deeds they enjoy the fruits of the second characteristics, clarity of mind. Even unbelievers sometimes do acts of generosity such as donations to social services, like hospitals, orphanage, homes for the aged, etc. and enjoy clarity of mind. 

Note:Please study about true saddha in detail in the chapter on Carita (mature or Habitual conduct) where saddhacarita is further explained.   

False Faith

True faith consists of purity of mind and belief in the truth of Dhamma. But there is also false belief in the world. For example some unscrupulous person may proclaim that a Buddha statue or a pagoda is emanating radiance in order to lure people to give donations. People who are made to believe in bogus scared relics, heretics who believe in their erroneous doctrines, etc. do not have true faith. They are just misled due to their ignorance, stupidity, naivety or simplicity, and this is to be categorized as moha (delusion), which is an akusala cetaiksa (unwholesome mental factor) People who have faith in good orators, or in monks and hermits with elegant appearance and pleasant voices who can dispense good magic, charms, or medicines, are not true believers. This is moha based on lust and intimacy. Such false faiths are classified in the Pali texts as muddhappasanna (deluded devotion).

Note:    Today, the world is abound with liars and swindlers. In some religions new and singular doctrines are affluent; in Buddhism also some impersonators invent novel doctrines, new modes of meditation and mystic medicine to trick ignorant devotees and naïve persons. When people give alms and money to such liars, such cheats, their acts stem from lust and delusion, not genuine faith. Because wise persons do not care to go against these tricksters, they become more and more popular day by day. “Yo balavatiya saddhaya samannagato avisaDanano, so muddhappasanno hoti na avecca pasanno; tathahi avatthusemim pasidati, seyyathapi titthiya” ~ Ekanipata Anguttara Tika Nowadays, women often take the leading role in matter relating to charity and religious rituals, without pondering whether this be appropriate or not. One must not believe blindly. Careful reasoning should precede faith and devotion. So everyone should endeavor to better their knowledge in religious affairs, including female devotees.

Confusion between Faith and Love

Today even virtuous persons confuse faith with love or affection. Many devotee will revere Dhamma teachers with pleasant voice and personalities who give good instructions. If they respect and honor them only for their good ethical conduct, it is saddha (faith). But if they become attached to such teachers like their own relatives it is mixture of faith and love. In Gotama Buddha’s time, disciples such as Venerable Vakkali and Minister Channa not only revered the Buddha but also loved him personally. So although faith was present in their hearts, there also was samyojana (attachment) which is unwholesome. Some people accept doctrines and instructions through personal attachment; such attachments sometimes can promote knowledge and wisdom and enhance fulfillment of parami perfections. If wholesome mental factors are cultivated on account of personal attachments, then it is beneficial. In the Patthana Pali it is said, “Akusalo dhamma kusalassa dhammassa upanissaya paccayena paccayo – unwholesome mental factors can support the formation of wholesome mental factors.” So even small unwholesome mental attachments can lead to good states of mind. In this view, teachers and preachers should teach the Dhamma with sincerity and goodwill to promote such developments. And disciples and devotees, on their part, should properly practise what is taught, so as to get beneficial results.

Wholesome Mental States / kusala

Wholesome Mental States: Kusala

There are fourteen (14) kusala cetasikas (wholesome mental factors), which are responsible for arising of wholesome consciousness:

1. Saddha (faith, confidence), 2. Sati (mindfulness, awareness), 3. Hiri (moral shame), 4. Ottappa (moral deed), 5. Alobha (non-greed, generosity), 6. Adosa (non-hatred, goodwill), 7. Amoha (non-deluded, wisdom), 8. Mettá (loving-kindness), 9. Karuna (compassion), 10. Mudita (sympathetic joy), 11. Upekkha (equanimity), 12. Samma vaca (right speech), 13. Samma kammanta (right action), 14. Samma ajiva (right livelihood)

Qualities of Sangha

Qualities of Sangha

The Sangha (the Community of Noble Ones) has the nine qualities as follows: (1) The disciples of the Blessed One practice well the threefold training of morality, concentration and wisdom, (2) The disciples of the Blessed One practice righteously the threefold training, (3) The disciples of the Blessed One practice to realize nibbana, (4) The disciples of the Blessed One practice to be worthy of veneration, (5) Being worthy of receiving offerings brought even from afar, (6) Being worthy of receiving offerings specially set aside for guests, (7) Being worthy of receiving offerings offered with the belief that the offering will bear fruits in future existences, (8) Being worthy of receiving reverential salutation, and (9) Being an unsurpassed (incomparable) fertile field for planting the seeds of merit for the world.

The Nine Qualities of the Sangha

The eight kinds of noble ones are collectively known as the Sangha. The non-ariya ones (Sammuti Sangha) who have the same view and the same moral practice as the noble ones (Ariya Sangha) are also included in the Sangha. The Sangha being endowed with nine supreme attributes, should be highly honored and venerated. The Sangha is peerless because it enables one who contact with the Sangha to achieve happiness and prosperity in the present existence as well as in future existences. The Sangha is an incomparable treasure because the members of the Sangha are incomparable in morality, concentration and wisdom in the whole world. The Sangha is extremely difficult to come across because it comes into existence only when the Buddha arises in the world. Only those who have accumulated great merits can revere and venerate this Sangha. Therefore the Sangha is the most honorable, most precious, most incomparable, most rare and most worthy treasure in the whole Universe.

The Eight Kinds of Noble Ones are:
* The first pair of the one who stands on the First Path and the one who stands in the First Fruition,
* The second pair of the one who stands on the Second Path and the one who stands in the Second Fruition,
* The third pair of the one who stands on the Third Path and the one who stands in the Third Fruition, and
* The fourth pair of the one who stands on the Fourth Path and the one who stands in the Fourth Fruition.

The Sangha (the Community of Noble Ones) has the nine qualities as follows:

(1) Suppatipanno Bhagavato Savakasamgho – The disciples of the Blessed One practice well the threefold training of morality, concentration and wisdom,

(2) Ujuppatipanno Bhagavato Savakasamgho – The disciples of the Blessed One practice righteously the threefold training,

(3) Nyayappatipanno Bhagavato Savakasamgho – The disciples of the Blessed One practice to realize nibbana,

(4) Samicippatipanno Bhagavato Savakasamgho – The disciples of the Blessed One practice to be worthy of veneration,

(5) Ahuneyyo – being worthy of receiving offerings brought even from afar,

(6) Pahuneyyo  -Being worthy of receiving offerings specially set aside for guests,

(7) Dakkhineyyo – being worthy of receiving offerings offered with the belief that the offering will bear fruits in future existences,

(8) Anjalikaraniyo – being worthy of receiving reverential salutation, and

(9) Anuttaram Punnakkhettam Lokassa – being an unsurpassed (incomparable) fertile field for planting the seeds of merit for the world.

     (1) Practicing Well the Threefold Trainings
The Sangha (The community of the disciples) of the Blessed One has practiced Dhamma well (with ever mindful, great effort, deep concentration, right thought and sharp wisdom) the threefold training rules Sila – bodily and verbal discipline, Samadhi – mental discipline, and Panna – knowledge discipline (seeing things as they truly are).

     (2) Practicing Righteously the Threefold Trainings
The Sangha has practiced Dhamma righteously (without concealing one$(Bs (Bfault, without pretending to be flawless, without pretending to have qualities or abilities) the threefold training rules.

     (3) Practicing to Realize Nibbana
The Sangha has practiced Dhamma the eagerly and perpetually because once a person enters a stream, he will not have a chance to be reborn in any woeful states, hell of intense continuous suffering, animal, ever hungry being, and being in miserable and remote places.

     (4) Practicing to be Worthy of Veneration
The Sangha has practiced Dhamma, that is worthy of all veneration.

     (5) Being Worthy of Receiving Offerings Brought even from afar
The Sangha is worthy of offerings (four requisites – alms, robe, lodging, medicine) which are brought even from far away.

     (6) Being Worthy of Receiving Offerings specially set aside for guests
The Sangha is worthy of offerings (things given to visitors like dear and beloved relatives and friends who come from all quarters).

     (7) Being Worthy of Receiving Offerings given for a next life
The Sangha is worthy of receiving offerings that is given out of faith in the next world (life).

     (8) Being Worthy of receiving Reverential Salutation
The Sangha is honored with both hands above the head by the whole world, thus it is worthy of reverential salutation.

     (9) Being the Unsurpassed Fertile Field of Merit for the World
The Sangha is the place for growing the whole world’s merit. Depending on it, the world’s various kinds of merit leading to welfare and happiness grow, thus the Sangha is an unsurpassed field of merit for the world.

     The Benefits of Reflecting upon Qualities of the Sangha
As long as someone reflects upon qualities of the Sangha, his mind is invaded neither by greed, nor by anger, nor by delusion. He has a right state of mind being inspired by the Sangha. And when he has suppressed the hindrances, the Jhana-factors arise in a single mind-moment. Furthermore, when a person reflects upon qualities of the Sangha, he is respectful and deferential towards the Sangha. He attains faithfulness and has much happiness and gladness. He also overcomes fear and dread. He is able to bear pain and comes to feel as if he were living in the Sangha’s presence. The body of who dwells in the reflection of Sangha’s qualities becomes as worthy of veneration as Uposatha house (a chapter house) where the Sangha assembles. When he encounters an opportunity for wrong-doing, he has a strong awareness of conscience and shame as if he were in the presence of the Sangha. If he comprehends no higher, he will be at least born in a happy state.

6 Qualities of Dhamma

6 Qualities of Dhamma

The Dhamma can be listened, studied, practiced and realized with great honor and adoration by those, not by ordinary person – but by the glorious ones who accumulated great meritorious deeds, who wish to enjoy peace and happiness. It is so valuable that it cannot be appraised and incomparable and superior to any other worldly treasure. But it is extremely difficult to come across and to listen to it because the Dhamma appears only when the Buddha appears.

The Six Qualities of the Dhamma

The Dhamma is:

  1. Svakkhato Bhagavata Dhammo – well-proclaimed by the Blessed One,
  2. Sanditthiko – self-realized,
  3. Akaliko – followed by fruit without delay (of immediate result),
  4. Ehipassiko – worthy of the invitation “Come and see”,
  5. Opaneyyiko – brought to oneself,
  6. Paccattam Veditabbo Vinnuhi – realized by the wise each for himself.

      The Dhamma can be listened, studied, practiced and realized with great honor and adoration by those, not by ordinary person – but by the glorious ones who accumulated great meritorious deeds, who wish to enjoy peace and happiness. It is so valuable that it cannot be appraised and incomparable and superior to any other worldly treasure. But it is extremely difficult to come across and to listen to it because the Dhamma appears only when the Buddha appears.

(1) The Dhamma which is Well-Expounded by the Blessed One
The Dhamma, which is well-expounded by the Blessed One, consists of the Scriptural Dhamma (Pariyatti) and the Ninefold Supramundane Dhamma (Lokuttara Dhamma).
The Scriptural Dhamma, Tipitaka – the Basket of Discipline, the Basket of Discourses, and the Basket of higher doctrine or explanation of Dhamma, is the bank of the Ninefold Supramundane Dhamma, the Four Paths, Four Fruitions, and Nibbana which is final liberation, which is good in the beginning (as soon as we hear we get peace and happiness), the middle (as soon as we practice we experience peace and happiness), and the end (after all done, we get nibbana – final liberation from samsara – the cycle of a continuity of birth and death).
The Four Noble Paths are:
(1) the Path of Stream-entry,
(2) the Path of Once-returning,
(3) the Path of Non-returning, and
(4) the Path of Arahantship.
“Path of Stream-entry” means the first Supramundane wholesome Dhamma of one who enters the stream that leads to Nibbana. “Path of Once-returning” means the second Supramundane wholesome Dhamma of one who will be reborn in the world only once before he attains Arahantship. “Path of Non-returning” means the third Supramundane wholesome Dhamma of one who does not return to this sensuous world. “Path of Arahantship” means the fourth Supramundane wholesome Dhamma of one who attains Arahantship – final emancipation.

     The Four Noble Fruitions are:
(1) Fruition of Stream-entry,
(2) Fruition of Once-returning,
(3) Fruition of Non-returning, and
(4) Fruition of Arahantship.
“Fruition of Stream-entry” means the first Supramundane resultant Dhamma of the first Supramundane wholesome state. “Fruition of Once-returning” means the second Supramundane resultant Dhamma of the second Supramundane Wholesome state. “Fruition of Non-returning” means the third Supramundane resultant Dhamma of the third Supramundane wholesome state. And “Fruition of Arahantship” means the fourth Supramundane resultant Dhamma of the fourth Supramundane wholesome state.

(2) The Dhamma which is Self-Realized
The Dhamma is to be realized by oneself by his own practice on meditation, without relying on faith in another, with the teamwork of Right View, Right Thought, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration together with three training rules of Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood.

(3) The Dhamma which is followed by its Fruition without delay
The Dhamma {the Four Noble Paths} gives immediate result because it is immediately followed by its own fruit {the Four Noble Fruitions}. Instead of giving its fruit after using up time such as five days, seven days, it gives its fruit immediately after its own arising. The arising of the Supramundane Path endures for only one mind-moment. Thereafter, its own fruit arises according to the procedure of the thought process.

(4) The Dhamma which is Worthy of the Invitation “Come and See”
The Dhamma is so distinct and pure that it is worthy of inviting others to “Come and See it”.

(5) The Dhamma which should be perpetually practiced
The Dhamma should be perpetually practiced because once a person enters a stream, he will not have a chance to be reborn in any woeful states, hell of intense continuous suffering, animal, ever hungry being, and being in miserable and remote places.

(6) The Dhamma which is Realized by the Wise Each for Himself
The Dhamma is to be realized by the wise individually.

     The Benefits of the Reflection upon the Qualities of the Dhamma
When the meditator reflects the qualities of the Dhamma, his mind is invaded neither by greed, nor by hate, nor by delusion. He has a right state of mind being inspired by the Dhamma. And when he has suppressed the hindrances, the Jhana factors arise in a single mind-moment. Furthermore, when a meditator reflects the Dhamma, he thinks, “In the past I never saw a master who taught the Dhamma which is brought to oneself thus; in the present I also do not see anyone such a master other than the Buddha. Seeing the qualities of the Dhamma, he is respectful and deferential towards the Buddha. Having great reverence for the Dhamma, he attains fullness of faith and has much happiness and gladness. He overcomes fear and dread. He is also able to bear pain and comes to feel as if he were living in the presence of the Dhamma. In addition, the body of him who is reflecting upon the qualities of the Dhamma becomes as worthy of veneration as a shrine room. His mind has a tendency towards the realization of incomparable Dhamma. When he encounters an opportunity for wrongdoing, he has a strong awareness of conscience and shame on reflecting upon the Dhamma. If he comprehends no higher, he will be at least born in a happy state.

9 Qualities of Buddha : Brief

9 Qualities in Brief There are 9 qualites ascribed to the Buddha.  These qualities are desribed by Pali words. This document is a translation of the traditional Pali.

The 9 Qualities of the Buddha:

1. Araham: Exalted; Accomplished One
* Far away from internal conflict
* Destroyer of defilements
* Worthy of requisites
*Devoid of secrets and evil doing

2. Samma sambuddho: Perfectly Self Enlightened;
* Knows all things by himself

3. Vijja-Carana Sampanno: Endowed with Knowledge and Virtue
* Vijja: Knowledge
* Carana: Virtue
* Sampanno: Endowed

4. Sugato: Well Spoken;
* Speaking Good & Beneficial things.
i. Good & Benificial: This is the way the Buddha Spoke
ii. ~ Good & Beneficial
iii. Good & ~ Beneficial
iv. ~ Good & ~ Beneficial
* Some may like the message some may dislike the message

5. Lokavidu: Knower of the Worlds
*Knower of the 3 Kinds of Worlds
i. Space
ii. Beings
iii. The relationship between Space and Beings

6. Anuttaro Purisadammasarathi: Supreme trainer of persons to be tamed
* Anuttaro: supreme or peerless
* Purisa: persons
* Damma: tamed
* Sarathi: trainer

7. Sattha devamanussanam: Teacher of Gods and Men

The Buddha was able to teach Gods and Men, and he made time in each day to teach.
* Sattha: teacher
* Deva: divine beings
* Manussanam: Men / People

8. Buddho: The Enlightened One
* Discovered the 4 Noble Truths
i. The truth of suffering
ii. The truth of the cause of suffering
iii. The truth of the cessation of suffering
iv. The truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering

9. Bhagava: Blesses One;
* Having the characteristic of magnetic attraction.
* When you meet him, you want to go back to see him.
* When you hear him speak, you want to back to hear him speak again.